Biomedical Sensors and Microsystems



The lecture will be given by Dr.-Ing. Daniel Teichmann (T) from the Chair for Medical Information Technology (MedIT/RWTH) and Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Wilfried Mokwa (M) from the Institute of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1 (IWE1/RWTH).



  1. Introduction (T)
    Organisation of the course, contents & learning aims, basics of human hemodynamics, origin and classification of biosignals, description of sensors, biomedical signal analysis
  2. Blood volume, blood oxygen saturation, and heart activity monitoring based on optoelectronical sensors (T)
    Basics of tissue optics, spectral range and optical window „through the skin“, photon interaction with biotissue, optoelectronical sensors and devices, arterial and venous evaluation tests, monitoring of arterial blood volume pulse and pulse oximetry, heart rate variability
  3. Blood flow monitoring based on ultrasound sensors and systems (T)
    Fundamentals of ultrasound, Doppler principle, sensor concepts for transcutaneous blood flow monitoring, typical applications in vascular diagnostics
  4. Blood pressure monitoring based on non-invasive Sensor concepts (T)
    Historical remarks and physiological fundamentals, (multi)sensor concepts for noninvasive assessment of arterial and venous blood pressure, rhythmical phenomena in human vascular system and their analysis in the time, frequency and wavelet domain
  5. Microsensors for invasive blood pressure monitoring (M)
    Basics of pressure monitoring, silicon micromachining for the fabrication of pressure sensors, piezoresistive and capacitive principles, concepts for sensor integration, invasive pressure monitoring, catheter tip sensors, applications
  6. System concepts for temperature and respiration monitoring (M)
    Fundamentals of temperature measurement, temperature sensing with resistors, diodes, NTCs, thermocouples, infrared microsensors, temperature sensing with infrared sensors, respiration monitoring by temperature sensing, temperature sensing for flow velocity measurements, measurement of cardiac output
  7. Transponder Systems (M)
    Basics of inductive coupled telemetry-systems, Radiofrequency Identification Device (RFID), Active and Passive Transponders, Application: Telemetry for Implants (Cochlea Implants, Deep Brain Stimulator, Intra Corporal pressure measurement, Retina Implant)
  8. Biochemical sensors & gene chip microsystems (M)
    Principles of biochemical sensing, amperometry and voltammetry, measurement of electrolyte concentration, clark cell for measurement of oxygen concentration, principles of gene chip, examples
  9. Student referates to part I: Biosensors (T)
  10. Student referates to part II: Microsystems (M)

Practical laboratory examinations

  1. Soldering Project – Build your own PPG (T)
  2. Actual R & D projects at MedIT/RWTH, related to BME (T)
    Visitation and measurements at the MedIT-Laboratory (with demonstration of the optical and noncontact monitoring systems)
  3. Repetitive excercises (M)
  4. Actual R & D projects at IWE/RWTH, related to BME (M)
    Visit of the clean room facilities of IWE 1, visit of the measuring laboratory with a demonstration of the systems “Bladder pressure monitoring system” and “Retina implant system”